Yurok, 18th century AD From California, North America
This knife was probably used by the Yurok of northern California, especially for the preparation of salmon, both for broiling and preservation by smoking.
The Yurok and Karuk live along the Klamath river. Though they speak different languages, they share a common material culture and similar legends about the origins of salmon. Many stories tell of mythological heroes, ikhareya, who inhabited the earth before the arrival of human beings and created animals. Early in the twentieth century, a Karok elder, Sweet William of Ishipishi, told the anthropologist Alfred Kroeber about a hero called Sugar Loaf Mountain. He created salmon, and kept them in a pool. When they grew he allowed them down to the ocean, and then to return upriver. He created a net to catch the salmon, and a club to kill them with. At first he had no knife and could only cook the salmon whole. Finally another creature Fish Hawk or Chukchuk decided to make a yuhirim or stone knife. He created a taharatar, a flint flaker, so that when people arrived on earth they would be able to make knives, keep them sharp, and prepare the fish properly.
The knife was probably collected on George Vancouver’s voyage in 1791-95 at the village of Tsurai or Trinidad.
Source: Uripa Late Intermediate Period ( 1000-1400 D. C.) D. Kurin Cultural Membership: Chanka Mummy from a young adult male, with an age range between 20 to 35 years. It is in a position fetal with legs twisted up inside the thoracic cavity. Has arthritis.
Bones automatically insinuate death, and often are the only physical remnant that insinuates life once existed. Shen Shaomin‘s bone works are equal parts terrifying and fascinating, man-made memorials to human intervention on the planet. Creatures that never have been or should be are pieced together from human and animal skeletons. The bones are carved and relief-carved with text taken from several sources, including the Bible, the Koran, and various sources. Inscribed in English, Arabic, and Chinese, the texts serve as warnings to the two largest industrial nations in the world of the damage being caused to the planet.
“A fundamental change associated with bipedalism was the evolution of a lumbar lordosis, a dorsally concave curvature that enhances the stability of the spine and places the center of gravity over the hips. Recent research suggests that unlike early hominins and modern humans, Neandertals were hypolordotic (Been et al., 2012). Absence of a lumbar lordosis in Neandertals is surprising given both the evolutionary and biomechanical relevance of the lumbar curve in bipedal locomotion. To better understand the function of the reduced lumbar lordosis in Neandertals, two studies were performed: a morphological analysis of human and Neandertal lumbopelvic regions and a kinematic assessment of human subjects walking with an experimentally reduced lordosis. The morphological analysis examined lumbopelvic variables in thirty-nine modern humans and three Neandertal skeletal specimens to determine whether hypolordotic humans and Neandertals share a similar lumbopelvic complex. In the kinematic analysis, 34 subjects posteriorly tilted the pelvis to achieve a reduced lordotic curve, simulating the Neandertal hypolordosis. Walking gait was then examined to determine the effects of walking with hypolordosis.
The morphological study revealed that hypolordotic modern humans have significantly longer and more ventrocaudally oriented transverse processes (p < 0.05) than normal or hyperlordotic humans, although Neandertals expressed a different pattern. Hypolordotic modern humans and Neandertals also featured a wide sacral shape index (p = 0.0292) compared to other lordosis groups. These skeletal characteristics present in hypolordotic subjects enhance lumbar stability and robusticity, which are advantageous for stressful physical activity.
In the kinematic study, subjects achieved a posterior pelvic tilt (normal mean 8.22o, experimental mean -1.76o, p < 0.0001) and a reduced lordosis (normal mean 24.48o, experimental mean 14.80o, p < 0.0001) in quiet stance. Overall, posterior tilt was associated with no change in lordosis during walking. It appears that a reduction in lordosis is difficult to sustain during locomotion, hinting at the fundamental need for the lumbar lordosis. Hypolordotic strides were reduced in length in females and associated with a flexed knee in both sexes (p < 0.0001).
The gait kinematics of experimentally induced hypolordosis in modern bipeds, combined with the relatively short legs of Neandertals, suggest that Neandertals may have been less efficient locomotors over flat terrain than modern humans. However, the Neandertal specimens featured a dorsolaterally positioned hip joint and a lumbopelvic complex uniquely adapted for hypolordosis, which may have alleviated the gait deviations seen in modern hypolordotic subjects. Lumbopelvic adaptations may have also given Neandertals a unique advantage during physically stressful activities such as lifting, so hypolordosis was likely an adaptation to both glacial climates and high activity levels” (read more/open access).